The following module should return 0 for both outputs:
module issue016(y0, y1); output [3:0] y0; output [3:0] y1; assign y0 = -4'd1 ** -4'sd2; assign y1 = -4'd1 ** -4'sd3; endmodule
But Verilator 3.856 sets y0 = 4'b0001 and y1 = 4'b1111.
Analysis: The 1st operand of the power operator is (unsigned) 4'b1111 in both cases. The 2nd operand of the power operator is self determined and its sign is not influenced by the rest of the expressions (see table 5-22 and sec. 5.5.1 of IEEE Std 1364-2005). According to table 5-6 of IEEE Std 1364-2005 this should return zero.
Crosscheck: Vivado 2013.4, XST 14.7, Isim 14.7 and Modelsim 10.1d implement this correctly.
2014-04-03 Reported as Issue #730 2014-04-06 Fixed in GIT commit ff19dd9